Audio by Dr. Michael Sokolow

Zevachim 14:3:"Before its time" [can refer to] either an animal [which is too young] or its owner [who brings the sacrifice too soon]. What [are cases where] the owner [acts] before his time? A Zav [a man suffering from gonorrhea], or a Zavah [a woman with a menstrual-type flow occurring at a time other than her normal period], or a woman who has given birth, or a Metzora [one rendered severely impure from an unsightly skin disease. Upon recovery and purification he must bring offerings], who offer their chata'ot [offerings generally brought to expiate sin] or their Ashamim [offerings generally brought to alleviate guilt] [too early] outside [the Temple], are exempt. But [if they offer] their Olot [offerings that are entirely burnt] or their Shelamim [offerings whose various parts are consumed by its owners, the Kohanim and the fire on the altar] outside [the Temple precincts] they are liable. One who offers up meat from a Chatat, [or] meat from an Asham, [or] meat from a Kodshai Kodashim [sacrifices of the highest degree of sanctity; they may be slaughtered only on the north-west corner of the altar, and consumed only within the Temple compound by male priests, or burnt entirely], [or] meat from a Kodashim Kalim [sacrifices of a lesser degree of sanctity; they may be slaughtered anywhere in the Temple courtyard and consumed by most anyone, anywhere in Jerusalem], or if [he offered] the remainder of the Omer [the special barley offering offered on the sixteenth of Nisan which permits grain harvested in the last year to be eaten], or the Shtei HaLechem [two leavened loaves of wheat brought as offerings on Shavuot which permitted using the new grain for holy offerings], or the Lechem HaPanim [twelve specially shaped unleavened loaves offered each Shabbat on the golden table in the Temple], or the remainders of the meal-offerings, [or] one who pours [oil onto a meal-offering], [or] one who mixes [the flour with the oil], [or] one who breaks [the meal-offering into pieces], [or] one who salts [an offering], [or] one who waves [an offering], [or] one who [brings the meal-offering to the altar], [or] one who arranges the table [with the Lechem HaPanim], or one who prepares the candles [of the Menorah - the Temple candelabrum], or one who takes the handful [of flour from a meal-offering], or one who receives the blood outside [the Temple precincts], is exempt. He is not liable due to his not belonging to the priestly class, nor due to his impurity, nor due to his lack of [priestly] garments, nor because he has [not] washed [his] hands or feet.

מחסר זמן, בין בגופו בין בבעליו. איזה הוא מחסר זמן בבעליו, הזב, והזבה, ויולדת, ומצורע, שהקריבו חטאתם ואשמם בחוץ, פטורין. עולותיהן ושלמיהן בחוץ, חיבין. המעלה מבשר חטאת, מבשר אשם, מבשר קדשי קדשים, מבשר קדשים קלים, ומותר העמר, ושתי הלחם, ולחם הפנים, ושירי מנחות, היוצק, הבולל, הפותת, המולח, המניף, המגיש, המסדר את השלחן, והמטיב את הנרות, והקומץ, והמקבל דמים בחוץ, פטור. אין חיבין עליו לא משום זרות, ולא משום טמאה, ולא משום מחסר בגדים, ולא משום רחוץ ידים ורגלים.

Zevachim 14:4: Before the Tabernacle was constructed, the Bamot [personal altars, permitted only during certain periods of Jewish history, and then, only for certain types of offerings] were permitted, and the services were performed by the first-borns. Once the Tabernacle was constructed, the Bamot were forbidden, and the services were performed by the Kohanim [the priestly caste, a subgroup of the tribe of Levi, uniquely responsible for maintaining and carrying out the sacrificial services in the Temple]. Kodshai Kodashim were eaten within the [Tabernacle] curtains, and Kodashim Kalim [were eaten] anywhere in the camp of Israel.

עד שלא הוקם המשכן, היו הבמות מתרות, ועבודה בבכורות. משהוקם המשכן, נאסרו הבמות, ועבודה בכהנים. קדשי קדשים נאכלים לפנים מן הקלעים. קדשים קלים בכל מחנה ישראל.

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