Audio by Michael Sokolow

Mishnah Taharos 4:4: If there is an olive's volume of corpse in the mouth of a raven, and it is uncertain if it was in an enclosed space over a person or over vessels in a private domain [which would have rendered them impure], the person's uncertainly is impure [i.e. the purity status of the person is uncertain, and therefore impure]; the vessels' uncertainty is pure [i.e. their purity status is uncertain, and therefore pure]. If one is filling ten buckets [from a well] and a vermin is found in one of them, it [the bucket in which it was found] is impure, and they [the rest] are all pure. One who pours from one vessel to another and a vermin was found in the lower one, the upper one is pure.

כַּזַּיִת מִן הַמֵּת בְּפִי הָעוֹרֵב, סָפֵק הֶאֱהִיל עַל הָאָדָם וְעַל הַכֵּלִים בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד, סְפֵק אָדָם, טָמֵא, סְפֵק כֵּלִים, טָהוֹר. הַמְמַלֵּא בַעֲשָׂרָה דְלָיִים וְנִמְצָא שֶׁרֶץ בְּאַחַד מֵהֶן, הוּא טָמֵא וְכֻלָּן טְהוֹרִין. הַמְעָרֶה מִכְּלִי לִכְלִי וְנִמְצָא שֶׁרֶץ בַּתַּחְתּוֹן, הָעֶלְיוֹן טָהוֹר:

Mishnah Taharos 4:5: For six uncertainties [regarding purity status] terumah is burnt: for the uncertainty of a plowed graveyard, and for the uncertainty of dirt that came from the lands of the nations [i.e. outside Israel], for the uncertainty of the clothes of an unlearned person, and for the uncertainty of found vessels, for the uncertainty of found spittle, for the uncertainty of human urine that was found opposite the urine of an animal [thereby allowing it to be clearly identified as human urine]. In [cases where there is] a certainty that any of these touched [terumah], which is [therefore the cause of] an uncertainty regarding their impurity status, the terumah is burnt. Rabbi Yose says: in a private domain, [the terumah is burnt] even in [cases where there is] an uncertainty that they touched. But the Sages say: in a private domain, [when there is an uncertainty that they touched] we suspend [i.e. neither burn nor eat the terumah], but in a public domain it is pure.

עַל שִׁשָּׁה סְפֵקוֹת שׂוֹרְפִין אֶת הַתְּרוּמָה. עַל סְפֵק בֵּית הַפְּרָס, וְעַל סְפֵק עָפָר הַבָּא מֵאֶרֶץ הָעַמִּים, עַל סְפֵק בִּגְדֵי עַם הָאָרֶץ, עַל סְפֵק כֵּלִים הַנִּמְצָאִין, עַל סְפֵק הָרֻקִּין הַנִּמְצָאִין, עַל סְפֵק מֵי רַגְלֵי אָדָם שֶׁהֵן כְּנֶגֶד מֵי רַגְלֵי בְהֵמָה. עַל וַדַּאי מַגָּעָן שֶׁהוּא סְפֵק טֻמְאָתָן, שׂוֹרְפִין אֶת הַתְּרוּמָה. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, אַף עַל סְפֵק מַגָּעָן בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד, תּוֹלִין. וּבִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, טָהוֹר:

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