Audio by Michael Sokolow

Mishnah Taharos 10:1: If one locks the olive press before the [unlearned] press workers [once he has purified them, to ensure that they remain inside and prepare the oil in purity], and in there are also vessels impure with midras impurity [a type of impurity due to being sat or stepped upon by certain types of impure individuals, rendering something an Origin of impurity], Rabbi Meir says: the olive press is impure. Rabbi Yehuda says: the olive press is pure. Rabbi Shimon says: if the workers consider them [the impure vessels] to be pure, the olive press is impure; and if they consider them to be impure, the olive press is pure. Rabbi Yose says: why are they [the workers, considered] impure? Because amei ha'aretz [unlearned individuals, uneducated about matters of purity] are not experts with regard to shifting [the position of something impure, even without touching it, which is one way impurity can be transferred].

הַנּוֹעֵל בֵּית הַבַּד מִפְּנֵי הַבַּדָּדִין וְהָיוּ לְשָׁם כֵּלִים טְמֵאִין מִדְרָס, רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, בֵּית הַבַּד טָמֵא. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, בֵּית הַבַּד טָהוֹר. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, אִם טְהוֹרִין לָהֶן, בֵּית הַבַּד טָמֵא. וְאִם טְמֵאִין לָהֶן, בֵּית הַבַּד טָהוֹר. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי, וְכִי מִפְּנֵי מָה טְמֵאוֹת, אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵין עַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ בְּקִיאִין בְּהֶסֵּט:

Mishnah Taharos 10:2: If olive press workers are entering and exiting, and there are impure liquids in the olive press, if between the liquids and the olives there is enough room for them to dry their feet on the ground, these are thereby pure. If something impure was found before olive press workers and olive harvesters, they are believed to say, "We did not touch [the impurity]." And similarly regarding the young children among them [who are assumed to be impure, the workers are believed to say they did not touch them]. They [the workers] can go outside through the entrance to the olive press and turn to the back of the fence [to relieve themselves], and they are pure. How far may they go and still remain pure? As far as he [the owner of the press] can still see them.

הַבַּדָּדִין שֶׁהָיוּ נִכְנָסִין וְיוֹצְאִין, וּמַשְׁקִין טְמֵאִין בְּתוֹךְ בֵּית הַבַּד, אִם יֵשׁ בֵּין מַשְׁקִין לַזֵּיתִים כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּנַגְּבוּ אֶת רַגְלֵיהֶם בָּאָרֶץ, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ טְהוֹרִין. הַבַּדָּדִין וְהַבּוֹצְרִין שֶׁנִּמְצֵאת טֻמְאָה לִפְנֵיהֶם, נֶאֱמָנִין לוֹמַר לֹא נָגָעְנוּ. וְכֵן הַתִּינוֹקוֹת שֶׁבֵּינֵיהֶם, יוֹצְאִים חוּץ לְפֶתַח בֵּית הַבַּד וּפוֹנִין לַאֲחוֹרֵי הַגָּדֵר, וְהֵן טְהוֹרִין. עַד כַּמָּה יַרְחִיקוּ וְיִהְיוּ טְהוֹרִין, עַד כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא רוֹאָן:

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