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פרק ג משנה ה
אתרוג הגזול והיבש A stolen or dry esrog
פסול is invalid
של אשרה  [an esrog] from an asheira (a tree that had been worshipped as an avoda zara)
ושל עיר הנדחת or from a city that had been led astray (to worship an avoda zara)
פסול is invalid;
של ערלה [an esrog] from orlah (i.e. from the first three years' of that tree)
פסול is invalid
של תרומה טמאה [an esrog] from terumah that is tamei
פסול is invalid
של תרומה טהורה  [an esrog] from terumah that is tahor
לא יטל should not be taken
ואם נטל כשר but if it was taken it is valid
של דמאי

[an esrog] from demai (i.e. it was obtained from an unlearned person who cannot be relied upon to have properly separated maaser)

בית שמאי פוסלין Beis Shammai say is invalid
ובית הלל מכשירין and Beis Hillel say is valid
של מעשר שני בירושלים [an esrog] from maaser shenei in Jerusalem [where it may be eaten]
לא יטל should not be taken
ואם נטל כשר but if it is taken it is valid.
פרק ג משנה ו
עלתה חזזית If a boil grew
על רבו on most of it [an esrog],
נטלה פטמתו if the pitum is removed,
נקלף if it was peeled,
נסדק if it was split,
נקב  or if it was punctured
וחסר כל שהוא and had lost the smallest amount
פסול it is invalid;
עלתה חזזית if a boil grew
על מיעוטו on less than half of it,
ניטל עקצו its stem was removed,
נקב or it was punctured
ולא חסר כל שהוא and had not lost the smallest amount
כשר it is valid;
אתרוג הכושי פסול an Ethiopian esrog is invalid;
והירק ככרתי and one as green as a leek
רבי מאיר מכשיר Rebbi Meri says is valid
ורבי יהודה פוסל and Rebbi Yehuda says is invalid.


משנה ה

של ערלה... של תרומה טמאה פסול -  Because these must be burned, they do not meet the requirement of the פסוק which says ולקחתם לכם, which in the case of a fruit like an esrog, means that it must be ראוי לאכילה.

של תרומה תהורה לא יטל - This is an אסור דרבנן to avoid allowing תרומה to become טמא, as it may come into contact with the lulav, which was kept wet, and when a fruit becomes wet it becomes מקבל טומאה.

בית הלל מכשירין - Becasue דמאי may be given to עניים, they held that it was therefore ראוי לאכילה enough to come under the rule of ולקחתם לכם.


משנה ו

עלתה חזזית על רבו - If the boil is in more than one place however, even if it does not cover most of the esrog it is invalid; this פסול is due to a lack of הדר.

נטלה פטמתו - This is invalid because such an esrog is חסר.

נקלף - This refers to the thin outer peel, and only if that entire layer was removed, although some say the opposite, if this entire peel is removed it is still valid, and it is only invalid if part of the outer peel is partially removed as this leaves it with a mottled appearance that is not הדר .

נסדק - According to רש"י and the רא"ש, this must run the entire length of the esrog to invalidate it, while the ר"ן says that if the crack must go to a depth of half the thickness of the rind to invalidate it, and that it need not run the entire length of the esrog, just half or in the חוטם, the tapered upper portion of the esrog is enough to invalidate it.

נקב - The גמרא says that if the hole runs from one end to the other of the esrog, or if it the size of an איסר, a small coin,  it is invalid even if it is not חסר anything.

נטל עקצו - The רמב"ם says that a small amount of the stem must remain, however, or the esrog will be invalid for being חסר.

אסרוג הכושי - This esrog is very dark in color, and is invalid only in areas such as Eretz Yisroel where such coloration is unusual; in its native land it would be valid, however.

והירק ככרתי - According to רבי יהודה, this is not הדר.



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