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 פרק א - משנה ט
המשלשל דפנות One who lowers the walls
מלמעלה למטה from the top downward
אם גבוה מן הארץ if they are above the ground
שלשה טפחים three tefachim
פסולה it is invalid
מלמטה למעלה [if one builds the walls] from the bottom upwards
אם גבוה מן הארץ

if they are higher than the ground

עשרה טפחים by ten tefachim
כשרה it is valid
רבי יוסי אומר Rebbi Yosi says
כשם שמלמטה למעלה just as from the bottom up
עשרה טפחים ten tefachim [is enough, regardless of the size of the gap above]
כך מלמעלה למטה so from the top down
עשרה טפחים [walls of] ten tefachim [in height are valid, no matter how high they end above the ground].
הרחיק את הסכוך If the s'chach is distanced [laterally]
מן הדפנות from the walls
שלשה טפחים by three tefachim
פסולה it is invalid.
 פרק א - משנה י
בית שנפחת A house that was reduced (i.e. its roof has been demolished)
וסכך על גביו and s'chach is placed atop it
אם יש מן הכתל לסכוך if there is from the wall to the s'chach
ארבע אמות four amos
פסולה it is invalid
וכן חצר  and similarly a courtyard
שהיא מקפת אכסדרה that is surrounded by porticos (i.e. roofed porches).
סכה גדולה A large succah
שהקיפוה בדבר שאין מסככים בו that is encircled with [roofing] material that may not be used for s'chach
אם יש תחתיו ארבע אמות if there is beneath it [the invalid s'chach] four amos
פסולה it is invalid.


משנה ט

שלשה טפחים - With a gap this large at the bottom, it is no longer considered a wall.  The measurement is said by the גמרא to be the minimum amount of space required for a goat to be able to easily slip through. 

אם גבוה מן הארץ  עשרה טפחים כשרה - This applies even if the s'chach is significantly higher that the top of the wall, and is based on the principal of גוד אסיק, which means "pull and bring up".  This הלכה למשה מסיני allows us to take a valid wall, which is ten tefachim high, and view it as if it actually extends all the way to the s'chach above it.   

רבי יוסי - He holds that מחיצה תלויה מתרת, a hanging wall is permissible, and that so long as it is a wall, in that it has ten solid tefachim of height, a gap at the bottom is no problem.

משנה י

בית שנפחת - The walls of this house remain, as well as some of the roof, but the middle of the roof has been removed.

אם יש מן הכתל לסכוך ארבע אמות פסולה - Less than this amount would allow us to use the principal of דופן עמוקה, a "bent wall", by which we would consider the remains of the original roof as a part of the wall that has bent inward, and not as part of the s'chach, for which they are פסול.

חצר שהיא מקפת אכסדרה - In this case, the courtyard is enclosed by the walls of houses, but the front of each house has a covered porch as well.  Again, if the wall of the house is within four tefachim of the end of the porch's roof and the start of the valid s'chach, we use the principal of דופן עמוקה to allow such a succha.  This case differs from the house with a demolished roof, in that there the walls were there in the service of the roof that was potentially forming part of the s'chach, whereas here the wall of the house really has nothing to do with the porch and its roof.

סכה גדולה שהקיפוה בדבר שאין מסככים בו - This case differs from the previous ones in that the problematic material was put in place for the sake of the succah, and is not just material that happened to be left there from other structures; nonetheless we still say that  the principal of דופן עמוקה would apply if less than four tefachim.


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