Audio by Dr. Michael Sokolow

If that one is not known to them [the Beth Din in Jerusalem], they [the Beth Din of his own place] send another with him to certify him [as reliable]. Originally testimony with regard to [the appearance of] the New Moon was received from anyone. When, however, the Boethusians adopted evil courses, it was ordained that testimony should be received only from persons known [to the Beth Din].      ראש השנה 2.1
אם אינן מכירין אותו, משלחין עימו אחר להעידו׃ בראשונה, היו מקבלין עדות החודש מכל אדם; משקילקלו המינים, התקינו שלא יהו מקבלין אלא מן המכירין
Originally they used to light beacons. When the Cutheans [Samaritans] adopted evil courses, they made a rule that messengers should go forth.                                  ראש השנה 2.2
בראשונה, היו משיאין משואות; משקילקלו הכותים, התקינו שיהו שלוחים יוצאים

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