Audio by Dr. Michael Sokolow

פרק ה - משנה ח
המקיים קוצים בכרם One who maintains thistles in a vineyard
רבי אליעזר אומר קידש R' Eliezer says has condemned [the vineyard as כלאים]
  וחכמים אומרים לא קידש and the Sages say he has not condemned [the vineyard]
אלא דבר שכמוהו מקיימין unless [he planted] something which is maintained;
האירוס והקיסוס The iris and ivy
 ושושנת המלך and white lily (lit. lily or rose of the king)
וכל מין זרעים and all [such] varieties of plants
אינן כלאיים בכרם are not כלאים in the vineyard;
הקנבס Hemp
רבי טרפון אומר אינו כלאיים

R' Tarfon says is not כלאים

וחכמים אומרים כלאיים and the Sages say is כלאים;
  והקינרס כלאיים בכרם And globe artichoke is כלאים in a vineyard
פרק ו - משנה א
איזה הוא עריס

What constitutes an 'עריס'? (an עריס is a formation of grapevines hanging from a structure, which are treated differently than individual vines left growing on the ground)

הנוטע שורה של חמש גפנים One who plants a row of five grapevines
בצד גדר שהוא גבוה עשרה טפחים next to a fence ten טפחים high
 או בצד חריץ שהוא עמוק עשרה טפחים ורחב ארבעה or next to a furrow that is ten טפחים deep and four wide
נותנין לו עבודתו ארבע אמות we give it its workspace of four אמות
  בית שמאי אומרים Beis Shammai say
מודדין ארבע אמות we measure four אמות
מעיקר הגפנים לשדה from the trunk of the vine to the field
 בית הלל אומרים מן הגדר לשדה Beis Hillel say from the fence to the field
  אמר רבי יוחנן בן נורי R' Yochanan ben Nuri said
 טועים כל האומרים כך all who say this are mistaken
 אלא אם יש שם ארבע אמות only if there are four אמות
מעיקר הגפנים ולגדר from the trunk of the vine to the field
נותנין לו את עבודתו we give it its workspace
 וזורע את המותר and plant in the remainder
וכמה היא עבודת הגפן and how much is the workspace of a grapevine?
שישה טפחים לכל רוח six טפחים in every direction
רבי עקיבה אומר שלושה R' Akiva said three [טפחים]


 פרק ה משנה ח

המקיים קוצים בכרם - The crux of the disagreement between R' Eliezer and the Sages is whether something which is cultivated in only some places can render a vineyard כלאים.  Thistles were cultivated in Arabia as fodder for camels, and so R' Eliezer held that they were כלאים whenever they grew in a vineyard, while the Sages said that it would only be אסור in those areas where it was cultivated.

והקיסוס - This is the spelling more often used for this plant (other spell it קיסום); it is apparent from רש"י in סוכה, דף ט עמוג ב that this is a climbing vine like ivy.

ושושנת המלך - While the מהר"י בן מלכי צדק and רע"ב say that this is a type of rose, the ר"ש and others disagree, as roses are usually classified as a מין אילן (we say בורא עצי בשמים on their aroma) and not מין זרעים as this is classified here.

וכל מין זרעים - The משנה ראשונה says that only cereal grains (תבואה) and some say vegetables (מיני ירקות) are כלאי כרם מן התורה (with certain exceptions mentioned earlier in the מסכתא).  The ראב"ד is גורס this clause without the word וכל, but says that these are not כלאים because they are not cultivated, not because they are not תבואה.

והקינרס - This is identified as the דרדר mentioned in פרשת בראשית, ג:יח and which is often translated as thistles; note that the globe artichoke is a species of thistle.  The ר"ש, citing the בראשית רבה, explains the etymology of דרדר for artichoke as being a play on the words דרי דרו, or layers upon layers, which is similar to the constitution of an artichoke; the תיו"ט in עוקצין, ג:ב gives a similar explanation, although he appears to raise the possibility that קינרס and קוצין are often confused with each other.


פרק ו משנה א

איזה הוא עריס - A grapevine is often trained to grow on a support structure which allows it to climb off the ground (the רמב"ם says that doing so allows them to grow better than vines left unsupported on the ground); often this structure is of latticework, hence the term "עריס" which is derived from ערס the terms for the slates that support a bed.  When vines grow off the ground on any structure deemed an עריס, they are treated more stringently than a solitary vine, and even ב"ה agrees that a single row of hanging grapevines is treated like a vineyard. (cf. ד:ה)

בית הלל אומרים מן הגדר לשדה - If the roots of the vine are an אמה from the fence, one need only separate an additional three אמות from that root.

אמר רבי יוחנן בן נורי - According to ריב"ן, an עריס is treated no differently than any other vines planted near a wall (see ד:ב and ה:ד).  As such, if there is sufficient space between the vine and the wall - four אמות - then one can plant in that space, assuming one has left the solitary vine's usual workspace of six טפחים.



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