Audio by Dr. Michael Sokolow

 פרק א - משנה ד
ובאילן With regard to [כלאים among] trees
האגסים והקרוסתמלין pears with gall-nut pears
והפרישין והעוזרדים and quinces with Mediterranean medlar (a small fruit tree or shrub)
אינם כלאים זה בזה are not כלאים when together;
התפוח והחוזרד [however] apples with wild apples;
והפרסקים והשקדין and peaches with almonds;
והשיזפין והרימין and jujube with wild jujube (a.k.a. red, Chinese, Korean or Indian date trees);
אף על פי שדומין זה לזה even though they are similar to each other,
כלאים זה בזה they are כלאים when together.
פרק א - משנה ה
הצנון והנפוץ Rape with radish;
החרדל והלפסן mustard with field mustard
ודלעת יונית עם המצרית והרמוצה and Greek gourd with Egyptian gourd and ash gourd;
אף על פי שדומין זה לזה even though they are similar to each other,
כלאים זה בזה they are כלאים when together.


משנה ד

ובאילן - As opposed to plants, there is no prohibition against growing trees together.  However grafting (הרכבה), where the branch of one species (the 'scion'), is cut from its tree and inserted to grow into the trunk of another type of tree (the 'rootstock'), is forbidden.

והקרוסתמלין - This is described by רע"ב as a tree bearing small pears (although in the first פרק of מעשרות he says it is apples) that resemble galls.

והפרישין והעוזררין - Many (רע"ב, רמב"ם) translate עוזרדים as hawthorn or sorbus, both of which are shrubs or small trees that bear small, berry-like fruit.  However, the most common varieties of these fruits do not resemble quinces in any way.  On the other hand, Mediterranean medlar is a species of hawthorn whose fruit resemble quinces, and like quinces are not edible (as the ירושלמי points out) without further treatment, either cooking or bletting (a controlled decaying process).

והחוזרד - This is translated as  forest apples (תפוח יערי) by the רע"ב; other versions replace the ד with a ר and read it as חזרור or חוזרר, and explain that it was eaten by חזירים, pigs.

והפרסקין והשקדים - Note that almonds grow with an downy, fleshy coat around their seeds, similar to that of peaches. 

משנה ה

הצנון והנפוץ - See the commentary on 1:3 (ד"ה הלפת והנפוץ) regarding the interpretation of these terms.

דלעת יונית עם המצרית והרמוצה - Note that  only the Greek gourd with either Egyptian gourd or ash gourd is כלאים; as stated in 1:2, Egyptian gourd with ash gourd is not.  See also the commentary there (ד"ה והרמוצה) regarding the interpretation of הרמוצה.


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