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מסכת קנים פרק ג משנה ו
האשה שאמרה הרי עלי קן כשאלד זכר. ילדה זכר. מביאה שתי קנים. אחת לנדרה. ואחת לחובתה נתנתם לכהן. והכהן צריך לעשות שלש פרידים מלמעלן ואחת מלמטן. לא עשה כן. אלא עשה שתים למעלן ושתים למטן ולא נמלך. צריכה להביא עוד פרידה אחת ויקריבנה למעלן. ממין אחד. משני מינין תביא שתים. פירשה נדרה. צריכה להביא עוד שלש פרידים ממין אחד. משני מינין תביא ארבע. קבעה נדרה. צריכה להביא עוד חמש פרידים ממין אחד. משני מינין תביא שש נתנתם לכהן ואין ידוע מה נתנה. הלך הכהן ועשה ואין ידוע מה עשה. צריכה להביא עוד ארבעה פרידים לנדרה. ושתים לחובתה. וחטאת אחת. בן עזאי אומר שתי חטאות. אמר ר' יהושע זה הוא שאמרו כשהוא חי קולו אחד. וכשהוא מת קולו שבעה. כיצד קולו שבעה. שתי קרניו. שתי חצוצרות. שתי שוקיו. שני חלילין. עורו לתוף. מעיו לנבלים. בני מעיו לכינורות. ויש אומרים. אף צמרו לתכלת. רבי שמעון בן עקשיא אומר. זקני עם הארץ. כל זמן שמזקינין. דעתן מיטרפת עליהן. שנאמר (איוב יב, כ) מסיר שפה לנאמנים וטעם זקנים יקח. אבל זקני תורה אינן כן. אלא כל זמן שמזקינין. דעתן מתישבת עליהן. שנאמר (איוב יב, יב) בישישים חכמה ואורך ימים תבונה    A woman who said, I will bring a pair of birds when I give birth to a boy, if she gave birth to a boy she must brings two pairs, one for her vow and one for her obligation. When she gives them to Kohen, he [the Kohen] must do three of the birds above [the mid-line of the Alter] and three below. [If] he did not do so , but instead did two above and two below and did not ask [her the purpose of the offerings], she [the woman] must bring one more bird and he [the Kohen] offers it above [the mid-line]. [This is true] if both birds were from the same species. [If they were] of different species, she must bring two [additional] birds. If she specified [which species would be used for] her vow, she must bring three more birds of the same species, [this is the rule if they were all from] the same species. [If they were] from two species she must bring four [additional] birds. If she attached her vow to her obligatory offering, she must now bring five additional birds, if they were of one species, and six if they were from two species. If she gave them to the Kohen, but did not know what species she gave to him and the Kohen brought the birds, but does not know how he brought them, she must bring four more birds for her vow and two for her obligation and one as a sin-offering. Ben Azzai says, she must bring two sin-offerins. Rabbi Yehoshua says:, This is [similar] to what is said, when it[a ram] is alive it has one voice, but once it's dead it has seven. How does it have seven? Its two horns can become two trumpets, its two thighs would become two flutes, its hide can become a drum, its stomach can become parts of lyres, its innards for harp strings, and some say its wool can be used for Tekhelet [blue-dyed wool used for tzitit and priesty garments]. Rabbi Shimon son of Akashia said: Unlearned elderly men as they get older their mind gets more confused as it says (Job 12:20), "He removes the speech of the capable and takes away the reasoning of the elders." But the elders of Torah are not that way, rather as they get older their mind becomes more settled as it says (Job 12:12) "In the aged is wisdom and in lengthy days understanding."

נשלמה מסכת כלים וכולהו מסכייתא דסדר קדשים


סדר טהרות

מסכת כלים

פרק א משנה א

אבות הטמאות  The progenitors of tumah are:

the sheretz,

ושכבת זרע seminal discharge,
וטמא מת one who contracted tumah from a cadaver,
והמצרע בימי ספרו a metzorah in his days of counting (the seven days between the beginning and end of his purification process)
ומי חטאת and the waters of transgression (i.e. the waters derived from the parah adumah used to purify those who are tameh from contact with the dead)
שאין בהן כדי הזיה that are insufficient to sprinkle,
הרי אלו מטמאין these impart tumah
אדם וכלים to people and utensils
במגע through [direct bodily] contact,
וכלי חרש and earthenware utensils
באיור through [being in their] air[space],
ואינם מטמאין and do not impart tumah

through being carried (if one carries them without touching them directly).




אבות הטמאות - A human corpse has a greater level of tumah than these, and so is often referred to as אבי אבות הטמאה, or a primogenitor.

השרץ - These are eight species specified in פרשת שמיני.

והמצרע בימי ספרו - To be purified from צרעת, one must undergo a process which begins, after being found clean of any signs of צרעת, with being sprinkled with spring water and the blood from a pair of birds, shaven and immersed in a mikvah, counting seven days, then shaving and immersing again, and bringing certain קרבנות. It is those seven days in between the first and second shaving and immersion that is referred to here.

וכלי חרש - Earthenware does not contract tumah by contact.