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מסכת כלים פרק ט משנה א

מחט או טבעת

A [metal] needle or a ring [that were a progenitor of tumah]

שנמצאו בנחשתו של תנור

that were found in (an indentation) the floor of a tanur, (the floor of a tanur was the ground, and in this case the needle or ring were there prior to the tanur being placed above them)

נראין אבל לא יוצאים

[and they were] visible but did not extend [into the airspace of the tanur]

אם אופה את הבצק

if one bakes dough

והוא נוגע בהן

and it touches them [the needle or ring]


it [the tanur] is tamei (as if the dough touches them while baking, they and the depression that they lie in are considered to have been in the airspace of the oven).

באיזה בצק אמרו

By what dough was this said?

בבצק הבינוני

With intermediate dough (not so soft as to very easily sink into the depression in the floor where the needle or ring lie, nor so thick as to not sink at all).

נמצאו בטפלת התנור

If they [a tahor ring or needle] were found in the coating of the tanur (the coating was the thick exterior layer of clay that covered the interior earthenware vessel of a tanur)

מקף צמיד פתיל

[and tanur was under the same canopy as a cadaver, and the opening at its top was] sealed with a tightly fitting cover (thus preventing it from becoming tamei),

אם בטמא טמאין

if in a tamei [tanur] they are tamei (if the tanur had become tamei prior to its sharing a roof with the cadaver, it loses its ability to protect from the tumah of the cadaver).

ואם בטהור טהורים

and if in a tahor [tanur] they are tahor.

נמצאו במגופת החבית

If they are found in the stopper of a barrel (made of earthenware, these stoppers were mushroom-shaped, wider at their top, and narrow below where it had to fit into the opening of the barrel)

מצדיה טמאים

from its sides (i.e. they were in the wide part of the stopper that did not actually sit directly above the mouth of the barrel) they are tamei,

מכנגד פיה טהורין

from opposite its mouth they are tahor (as this part of the stopper is deemed a necessary component of the barrel);

נראין בתוכה

if they are visible in it (i.e. the needle or ring, while embedded in the stopper, can be seen from inside the barrel

אבל לא לאוירה

but are not in its airspace


they are tahor (if they had extended into the airspace of the barrel, they would no longer be considered an integral part of the stopper, and so would lose the protection of the barrel; by rabbinical decree, the protection afforded by earthenware vessels only extended to the vessels and food and beverages therein, but not to items that can be purified by immersion, such as these metal implements);

שוקעין בתוכה

if they are sunken into it [into the stopper]

ותחתיהם כקלפת השום

and beneath them is like the peel of garlic (i.e. the material of the stopper that lies between them and the airspace of the barrel is as thin as a garlic peel)


they are tahor.


פרק ט משנה ב


A barrel

שהיא מלאה

that is filled

משקין טהורין

with tahor beverages

ומנקת בתוכה

and a [metal] straw is in it

מקפת צמיד פתיל

sealed with a tightly fitting cover

ונתונה באוהל המת

and placed under a canopy with a corpse,

בית שמאי אומרים

Beis Shammai say

החבית והמשקין טהורין

the barrel and the beverage are tahor

ומנקת טמאה

and the straw is tamei,

ובית הלל אומרין

and Beis Hillel say

אף מנקת טהורה

the straw is also tahor;

חזרו בית הלל

Beis Hillel retracted

להורות כדברי בית שמאי

to rule according to the words of Beis Shammai.