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מסכת כלים

פרק כו משנה ט

עור שהוא טמא מדרס

A hide that was tamei midras (and was currently designated for use as something susceptible to such tumah, such as a mat)

וחשב עליו לרצועות

and one intended for it to be straps


or sandals (which are not susceptible to tumah),

כיון שנתן בו את האזמל

when he puts the knife to it (i.e. as soon as the knife is inserted into the hide, but not real change to it is made)


it is tahor,

דברי רבי יהודה

these are the words of Rabbi Yehudah (while intent alone would not suffice, he held that a physical change was not necessary; rather a physical demonstration of the intended change to the utensil was sufficient);

וחכמים אומרים

and the Sages say

עד שימעטנו

until he reduces it

פחות מחמשה טפחים

to less than five (square) handbreadths (they held it was necessary to convert the hide into something else completley, which required such a reduction);

רבי אלעזר ברבי צדוק אומר

Rabbi Eliezer the son of Rabbi Tzadok says,

אף העושה מטפחת

also one who makes a matpeches (this was a small piece of material, and in this particular case it was used to sit or lay upon)

מן העור

from a hide (that was tamei, and used for something like a mat)


it is tamei (even though the utensil has been changed, it still serves as a seat, the same purpose which had originally made it susceptible to tumah)

ומן הכסת

and from a mattress


it is tahor (as this was a more significant change, from an item that served as a container to an item that was sat upon).


פרק כז משנה א


The cloth

מטמא משום חמשה שמות

can become tamei due to five statuses (described below);


the sackcloth (made of coarsely woven goat hair, or the hair from the tail of a horse or cow),

משום ארבעה

due to four;


the hide,

משום שלשה

due to three;


the wood,

משום שנים

due to two;

וכלי חרס

and earthenware utensils,

משום אחד

due to one.

כלי חרס

Earthenware utensils

מטמא משום כלי קבול

become tamei for being a utensil with a receptacle,

כל שאין לו תוך

and that do not have interiors

בכלי חרס

from earthenware utensils,

אין לו אחורים

do not have exteriors (that is to say, if something tamei touched the outer surface of a flat earthenware utensil, it remains tahor).

מוסף עליו העץ

The (utensil made of) wood exceeds it,

שהוא מטמא משום מושב

as it (also) becomes tamei for being a seat (even if it lacks a receptacle),

וכן טבלה שאין לה לזבז

and similarly a tray that has no rim,

בכלי עץ טמאה

with a wooden utensil (such a tray is rabbinically) tamei,

בכלי חרס

with earthenware


it is tahor.

מוסף עליו העור

The hide exceeds it,

שהוא מטמא משום אהלים

as it (also) becomes tamei as a canopy (a hide that formed a canopy over a cadaver becomes tamei).

מוסף עליו השק

The sackcloth exceeds it,

שהוא מטמא משום אריג

as it (also) becomes tamei for being woven (if intended to be used, no matter how small).

מוסף עליו הבגד

The cloth exceeds it,

שהוא מיטמא

as it (also) becomes tamei

משום שלש על שלש

for being three by three (handbreadths; the following mishnah will convey the details of this rule.)


לרפואת מרים חיה בת ברכה בתוך שאר חולי ישראל