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מסכת כלים

פרק כד משנה יז

שלש קפות הן

There are three types of boxes:


A worn one (that is still intact and functional)

שטליה על הבריה

that was attached to a sound one (one box was placed inside the other, and then the two were glued or nailed together, forming a single, reinforced box)

הולכין אחר הבריה

we follow the whole one (in determining the tumah/taharah status of this new composition; thus, if the worn box had been tamei when attached and the sound one was tahor, the newly created combined box will be tahor);

קטנה על הגדולה

if a small one was on a large one,

הולכין אחר הגדולה

we follow the large one;

היו שוות

if they were equal,

הולכין אחר הפנימית

we follow the interior one.

רבי שמעון אומר

Rabbi Shimon says,

כף של מאזנים

the pan of a balance scale (which was tamei, and made of metal)

שטליה על שולי המיחם

that was attached to the bottom of a (tahor) boiler (thus reinforcing the floor of this utensil),


(if the pan was attached) from inside (the boiler)


(the boiler) is tamei,


from outside


it (including the pan) is tahor,

טליה על צידה

if it was attached to the side

בין מבפנים בין מבחוץ

whether from inside or outside


is tahor.


פרק כה משנה א

כל הכלים

All utensils

יש להם אחורים ותוך

have an exterior and an interior (these surfaces have different rules; for example, if a tamei liquid comes into contact only with the exterior, the exterior is rabbinically tamei while the interior remains tahor, but if it touches only the interior, the entire vessel, including its exterior, is rabbinically tamei),

כגון הכרים

such as pillows,


and mattresses,


and sacks,


and martzufim (large leather sacks used to transport goods on ships),

דברי רבי יהודה

these are the words of Rabbi Yehuda;

רבי מאיר אומר

Rabbi Meir says,

כל שיש לו תוברות

any that has loops (these were used for drawstrings that would close the aforementioned utensils, and would give the bag a distinct interior and exterior)

יש לו אחורים ותוך

have an exterior and an interior,

שאין לו תוברות

that which do not have a loop (and so can be turned inside out)

אין לו אחורים ותוך

do not have a exterior and an interior (and both surfaces are treated as the interior).


The table


and the delphica

יש להן אחורים ותוך

have an exterior and interior (their finished surfaces are deemed their "interior", and their unfinished undersides are considered as their "exterior"),

דברי רבי יהודה

these are the words of Rabbi Yehuda;

רבי מאיר אומר

Rabbi Meir says,

אין להן אחורים

they do not have exteriors;

וכן טבלה שאין לה לזביז

and similarly a tray that has no rim (there is the same difference of opinion with regard to the unfinished underside of such a utensil).


לרפואת מרים חיה בת ברכה בתוך שאר חולי ישראל