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מסכת כלים

פרק כ משנה ב

חמת חלילין

A bagpipe

טהורה מן המדרס

is tahor from midras (as its bag cannot be sat on without preventing it from being played properly).

ערבת פסונות

A trough for construction (construction materials were placed in this wooden container, some say it was rocks and earth, others that it was cement),

בית שמאי אומרים

Beis Shammai say


[in addition to the the tumah of a corpse, is also susceptible to the tumah of] misdras (as workers would sit in it while it was carted to the work site)

ובית הלל אומרים

and Beis Hillel say

טמא מת

[it is only susceptible to] the tumah of a corpse (as other than construction workers on their way to the job, most people would not sit in it for fear of becoming dirty).


A trough [used for kneading dough]

משני לוג ועד תשעה קבין

[with a capacity] from two logs until nine kavs


that cracked

טמאה מדרס

[is susceptible to] the tumah of misdras (as people would turn it over and use it as a stool; a trough larger than the specified size would ordinarily be repaired, and not used as a stool, smaller was too small to sit on comfortably),

הניחה בגשמים ונתפחה

if it was placed in the rain and swelled (thus sealing the crack shut)

טמאה טמא מת

it is [susceptible to the] tumah of a corpse (and not midras, even though this is only a temporary status, until it dries out and the crack reopens);

בקדים ונסדקה

if it was [then placed] in the east wind (which was dry and hot) and it cracked

מקבלת מדרס

it is susceptible to midras.

זה חמר בשירי כלי עץ

This is a stringency of the remnants of wooden utensils


from their origin (as originally it was not susceptible to midras).

וחמר בשירי כלי נצרים

And a stringency of the remnants of wicker utensils (baskets that are woven from twigs)

מבתחלתן from their origin,
שמתחילתן אינם מקבלים טמאה as originally, they are not susceptible to tumah
עד שיתחסמו until they are finished (i.e. their rims have been woven);
נתחסמו once finished
אף על פי even though
שנשרו שפתותיהן their rims have fallen away
כל שהן טמאין the smallest of them (so long as they have a receptacle) are tamei.


פרק כ משנה ג

מקל A stick
שעשאו יד לקרדם that was made a (temporary) handle for a spade
חבור לטמאה בשעת מלאכה is connected (to the metal spade) for tumah while in use (but not after, as it is not meant to be permanent).
הדיוסטר A dyustar (this was a pole with two holes in it, one going front to back, the other left to right; metal rods would be inserted into those holes and yarn would be wound around them),
חבור לטמאה בשעת מלאכה is connected (to the metal rods) for tumah while in use (but not after, as it is not meant to be permanent);
קבעו בכלונס if it is set into a post (a thick wooden beam that is not susceptible to tumah)
טמא it is tamei (as this wooden pole is no longer considered a temporary device, but by being affixed to the post, is now regarded permanently as a dyuster)
ואינו חבור לו and is not considered attached to it (the post).
עשה בו דיוסטר If one made in it [the post] a dyustar (by drilling the holes for the metal rods into the post itself)
אין טמא אלא צרכו on that part of it that is needed (to function as a dyuster) is tamei.
כסא שקבעו בכלונס A chair that is set on a post
טמא ואינו חבור לו is tamei and is not [considered] connected to it.
עשה בו כסא If one made it into a chair (if one carved a seat out of the post)
אין טמא אלא מקומו it is not tamei except in its (the chair's) place
קבעו בקורת בית הבד If he attached it (the chair) the the beam of an olive press (which is not susceptible to tumah)
טמא ואינו חבור לה it (the chair) is tamei and is not [considered] connected to it.
עשה בראשה כסא If one made a chair at its end
טהור it is tahor
מפני שאומרין לו as they will say to him
עמוד ונעשה את מלאכתנו "stand so that we may do our work" (as the press cannot be used while one sits there).


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