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מסכת כלים

פרק יח משנה ה

NB:  The bed of the mishna was made of four boards and four leg posts.  Two long boards went along the sides, and two short boards were at the ends of the bed.  The two ends of each of the four boards were held by a socket in a leg post.


A bed

שהיתה טמאה מדרס

that was tamei midras (from having borne the weight of a zav, zavah, niddah or yoledes),

נטלה קצרה

if a short board was removed

ושתי כרעים

and two legs (that were on either end of that short board),


it is tamei (as the bed can still be slept upon, even though it is now tilted downward on the end from which the legs and board were removed);

ארוכה ושתי כרעים

if a long board and two legs (that were on either end of it were removed)


it is tahor (as the bed is now unusable, being that it is now titled to its side);

רבי נחמיה מטמא

Rabbi Nechemie rules that it is tamei (he held that since it could be propped up against a wall or on another object, the bed is not considered broken).

גדד שתי לשונות לוכסן

If two diagonal tongues were cut off (these tongues were wooden pieces that were under each of the legs),

גדד שתי כרעים

if two legs are cut off

ו(טפח על טפח) לוכסן

(one handbreadth from each) diagonally

או שמעטה פחות מטפח

or one lowered [the bed to a height] less than one handbreadth (in this case, the middle of the bed will sag on to the groung)


it is tahor.


משנה ו


A bed

שהיתה טמאה מדרס

that was tamei midras (from having borne the weight of a zav, zavah, niddah or yoledes),

נשברה ארוכה ותקנה

if a long board broke and one fixed it

טמאה מדרס

it is tamei midras.

נשברה שניה ותקנה

If the second [long board] broke and he fixed it (after having replaced the broken first board)

טהורה מן המדרס

it is tahor from midras (as it is no longer considered the original bed),

אבל טמאה מגע מדרס

but is tamei from contact with midras. (in other words, the bed is no longer a progenitor, an av hatumah, but is now one level below that, a rishon, because each component of the bed, in addition to its status as tamei midras for being a bed, had a separate status as an item connected to something tamei midras, which was never lost as they were always a part of a usable utensil);

לא הספיק לתקן את הראשונה

If he did not have a chance to fix the first board

עד שנשברה שניה

before the second board broke


it [the bed] is tahor (completley, because while missing both long boards, it was unsuitable for use, and so lost all tumah).


לרפואת מרים חיה בת ברכה בתוך שאר חולי ישראל