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מסכת כלים פרק יד משנה ח
מפתח של ארכובה

A knee [shaped] key (this was a key with 90 degree curved bend in its shaft)

שנשבר מתוך ארכובתו

which broke in its knee (i.e. the shaft broke at the point of this curve)


[the part with the handle] is tahor;

רבי יהודה מטמא

Rabbi Yehuda ruled it is tamei

מפני שהוא פותח בו מבפנים

because one can unlock with it from inside.

ושל גם

And of [a key shaped like the Greek letter] gamma (a gamma looks like an upside-down L; as opposed to the curved 'knee' shape above, the shaft of this one makes a sharper 90 degree bend)

שנשבר מתוך גמו

that broke at [the bend of] its gamma


is tahor (due to the sharp angle, it cannot even be used to unlock from the inside);

היו בו חפין ונקבין

if it had teeth and holes (this is the part of the key that goes into the lock and moves the bolt, as opposed to the part with the handle, which had been discussed until now; some locks could be opened with teeth, others required a key with holes, the key referred to here would work with either type)


is tamei (as it can still be used to unlock the door);

נטלו חפין

if its teeth were removed

טמא מפני הנקבין

it is tamei because of the holes,

נסתתמו נקבין

if the holes were sealed

טמא מפני חפין

it is tamei because of the teeth.

ניטלו חפין

If the teeth were removed

ונסתתמו נקבים

and the holes sealed

או שפרצו זה לתוך זה

or [the holes] broke into each other


it is tahor.

מסננת של חרדל

A mustard strainer

שנפרצו בה שלשה נקבים מלמטן

in which three bottom holes broke

זה לתוך זה

into each other (to make one large hole


is tahor (as it can no longer strain properly).

והאפרכס של מתכת

and the grider's hopper (this was a shute, wide at the top and narrow at the bottom, which fed grain into the mill) made of metal


is tamei (it is deemed an independently significant utensil with its own name).


פרק טו משנה א

כלי עץ

Wooden utensils,

כלי עור

leather utensils,

כלי עצם

bone utensils,

וכלי זכוכית

and glass utensils,

פשוטיהן טהורין

the flat ones are tahor

ומקבליהן טמאין

and the hollow ones are tamei;

נשברו טהרו

if they break they become tahor,

חזר ועשה מהן כלים

if one goes and makes a utensil from them

מקבלין טמאה מכאן ולהבא

they are susceptible to tumah from then on.


A bin (made of wood, this large box was used to store grain),


and the chest (a more generic storage box),


and the cabinet (which was taller and used to store housewares and clothing),

כורת הקש

a straw basket

וכורת הקנים

and a reed basket (these two have the status of wood),

ובור ספינה אלכסנדרית

and the cistern of an Alexandrian ship (a large wooden tank used in large ships to store drinking water),

שיש להן שולים

that have bottoms (that is, theses vessels have wide flat bottoms that allow them to be rested on the ground)

והן מחזיקין ארבעים סאה בלח

and they can hold forty liquid se'ahs (approximately 180 gallons)

שהם כורים ביבש

which are two kors of dry goods (sixty se'ahs in volume, it is the equivalent as dry goods can be piled up above the rim of the container)

הרי אלו טהורין

these are tahor; (it must be usual for a a container to be carried while full for it to be susceptible to tumah, which these are not)

ושאר כל הכלים

and all other utensils,

בין מקבלין

whether they hold [this volume]

בין אינם מקבלין

whether they do not hold [this volume]


are tamei, (unless one is certain that it is of a type that is not carried while full)

דברי רבי מאיר

these are the words of Rabbi Meir.

רבי יהודה אומר

Rabbi Yehuda says

דרדור עגלה

a wagon's barrel (used to store water on a wagon, this held forty liquid se'ahs)

וקסטת המלכים

and the provision chests of kings (compartmented wooden cabinets used to store provisions in a kings coach),

וערבת העבדנין

an tanner's trough (used for soaking hides),

ובור ספינה קטנה

and the cistern of a small ship,


and the coffin,

אף על פי שהם מקבלין

even though they hold [forty liquid se'ahs]


they are tamei

שאינן עשויין לטלטל

as they are not made to be carried

אלא במה שבתוכן

except with what is inside them,

ושאר כל הכלים

and all other utensils

המקבלין טהורין

that hold [forty liquid se'ahs] are tahor

ושאינן מקבלין טמאין

that do not hold [forty liquid se'ahs] are tamai.

אין בין דברי רבי מאיר

There is not difference between the words of Rabbi Meir

לדברי רבי יהודה

to the words of Rabbi Yehuda

אלא ערבת בעל הבית

except for the kneading trough of a householder (which was only rarely moved while full, R' Meir held was tamei, even though it held forty liquid se'ahs, and R' Yehuda held was tahor)