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מסכת כלים פרק יג משנה ו


המשמש את המתכת

that serves the metal [of a utensil]


is tamei


and metal

המשמשת את העץ

that serves the wood [of a utensil]


is tahor.



פותחת של עץ

A gate-key (some say: lock) of wood

והפין שלה של מתכת

and its pins are of metal (the pins are the parts that open the lock, and the wood is the shaft they are fastened to; according to those that translate this as a lock, the pins are the interior parts that actually lock it shut),

אפילו אחת

even one,


is tamei;

פותחת של מתכת

a gate-key of metal

והפין שלה של עץ

and its pins are of wood


is tahor.

טבעת של מתכת

A ring of metal

וחותם שלה של אלמוג

and its signet is of almog (a type of wood)


is tamei,

טבעת של אלמוג

a ring of almog

וחותם שלה של מתכת

and its signet is of metal


is tahor.

השן שבטס

The tooth of a plate (a small piece of metal that projected from a thin sheet of hammered metal, and which was used as a key),


and of a gate-key,


and of a standard key

טמאה בפני עצמה

is tamei on its own (even if separated from the plate, a tooth, as opposed to a pin, did not need a shaft to function).


פרק יג משנה ז

הכדומין האשקלונין

The Ashkelonian grapnels (these were each a long wooden pole affixed to the center of metal hoop, with several hooks dangling from the hoop; some say they were used to retrieve items that had fallen into a well, others that they were used to hang flasks of water to cool)


that broke

והאונקלי שלהן קימת

and their hook remains (attached to each broken-off piece)

הרי אלו טמאין

these are tamei (as the hooks can still be used).


The pitchfork,


and the winnowing fork (which had more tines),


and the rake (which had even more tines),

וכן מסרק של ראש

and similarly a head (i.e. hair) comb,

שניטלה אחת משניהן

that had one of their (wooden) tines removed

ועשאה של מתכת

and made of (i.e. replaced with) metal,

הרי אלו טמאין

these are tamei;

ועל כולן

and on all of these

אמר רבי יהושוע

Rabbi Yehoshua said

דבר חדש חידשו סופרים

the Sages have created a new novelty,

ואין לי מה אשיב

and I do not have with what to answer it.  (He held it to be a tremendous novelty to say such by the case of the pieces of the broken grapnel, where they could not be used for their original purpose; in the case of the single tine, he found it to be very novel to say that this was enough to make it tamei.)