Click here for audio

מסכת כלים פרק יא משנה ג
העושה כלים

One who makes utensils (from the following items, which are not susceptible to tumah)

מן העשת

from iron ore (this is raw iron that was just taken from the ground),

ומן החררה

and from a cake (of iron that has been freshly extracted from its ore via the smelting process),

ומן הסובב של גלגל

and from the hoop of a wheel (this is a component of a wheel, and is not susceptible to tumah as it was secondary to the wooden wheel itself),

ומן הטסין

and from sheet metal,

ומן הציפויין

and from [metal prepared for use in] plating,

מכני כלים

from the bases of utensils (upon which utensils were placed, also not susceptible to tumah as being accessories, and not utensils in their own right),

ומאגני כלים

and from the [detachable] rims of utensils,

מאזני כלים

from the handles of utensils,

מן השחלת

from scraps [from the manufacturing of utensils],

ומן הגרודת

and from filings (that were filed off of a utensil before it was susceptible to tumah),


are tahor (if made from any other source we consider the new utensil tamei by rabbinical decree).

רבי יוחנן בן נורי אומר

Rabbi Yochanan ben Nuri says

אף מן הקצוצת

even [if made] from cut pieces (i.e. from the shards of a completely cut up utensil).

משברי כלים

[if a new utensil was made] from the broken pieces of utensils,

ומן הגרוטים

and from fragments (of worn-out utensils)

ומן המסמרות

and from nails

שידוע שנעשו מכלים

that were known to have been made from utensils,


they are tamei (by rabbinic decree, due to the possibility that they were previously tamei).

מן המסמרות [if a new utensil was made] from nails [of unknown origin],
בית שמאי מטמאין Beis Shammai ruled them tamei
ובית הלל מטהרין and Beis Hillel rules them tahor.

פרק יא משנה ד

ברזל טמא Iron that is (from a utensil that was) tamei
שבללו עם ברזל טהור that one mixed (by melting it) with iron that was tahor,
אם רב מן הטמא if the majority is if from the tamei
טמא it [the utensil formed from this mixture] is tamei
ואם רוב מן הטהור and if the majority was from the tahor
טהור it is tahor,
מחצה למחצה [if exactly] half and half,
טמא it is tamei.
וכן מן החלמה And similarly [a utensil made from a mixture] from chalama (a type of earthenware)
ומן הגללים and from dung (which is not susceptible to tumah).
קלוסטרה A [door-bolt with a] knob (which can also be used as a pestle)

is tamei (if made from iron that is deemed a tamei source);

ומצפה and if [made from iron deemed to be a tahor source, and] plated [with iron from a tamei source],
טהורה it is tahor.
הפין והפורנה The pin tumbler and the bolt (these were parts of the mechanism of a door lock)
טמאין are tamei (as although they could be used for doors, which were attached to the ground, they were also used for containers that were not attached to the ground).
והקלוסטרה And the [door-bolt with a] knob,
רבי יהושוע אומר Rabbi Yehoshua says
שומטה מפתח זה one may drag it (by the string that was attached to it) from this door
ותולה בחברו בשבת and hang it on another on shabbos;
רבי טרפון אומר Rabbi Tarfon says
הרי היא לו it is to him
ככל הכלים like all utensils
ומטלטלת בחצר and may be carried [on shabbos] within a courtyard (and one need not use indirect means).