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מסכת כלים פרק י משנה ז
תנור ישן

An old tanur (that that has been heated the requisite amount to be susceptible to tumah; see 5:1)

בתוך החדש

inside of a new one (one that has not yet been heated the requisite amount and is therefore not susceptible to tumah; in this case the mouths of the two tanurs are at the same level)

וסרידה על פי הישן

and a mat is on the mouth of the old one (yet it is large enough to block the mouth of the new tanur as well, but it is not plastered in place, so there is no tight fitting seal on either oven)

ניטל הישן

if the old one is removed

וסרידה נופלת

and the mat will fall

הכל טמא

everything is tamei [if they are under the same canopy as a cadaver]

ואם לאו הכל טהור

and if not everything is tahor (if the new oven is holding up the mat, then it constitutes a separate canopy from that of the corpse, and so protects everything beneath it, including the old tanur).

חדש בתוך הישן

[If the ovens were arranged with the one that was] new inside the old

וסרידה על פי הישן

and the mat was on the mouth of the old one,

אם אין בין חדש לסרידה

if there is not between the new one and the mat

פותח טפח

the space of a handbreadth (then we consider it as if it was resting atop the new one),

כל שבחדש טהור

everything in the new one is tahor.


פרק י משנה ח


[Two or more] stewpots (which are made of earthenware),

זו בתוך זו

one inside the other

ושפתותיהן שוות

and their rims are even,

השרץ בעליונה

if a sheretz is in the highest one (i.e. the innermost of these nested pots)

או בתחתונה

or the lowest one (the outermost),

היא טמאה

it [the one holding the sheretz] is tamei

וכלן טהורות

and all of [the rest of them] are tahor

היו בכונס משקה

If liquids could get in (because the pots had holes in them),

השרץ בעליונה

if the sheretz was in the top one

כלן טמאות

all of them are tamei,

בתחתונה היא טמאה

[if the sheretz was] in the lower one it is tamei

וכלן טהורות

and all [of the rest of] them are tahor;

השרץ בעליונה

If the sheretz was in the top one

והתחתונה עודפת

and the lower one is higher,

היא והתחתונה טמאה

it and the lower one is tamei.


[If the sheretz was] in the top one

והתחתונה עודפת

and the lower one is higher

כל שיש בה משקה טופח

all [pots in between the top one and the lower one] that has sufficient liquid to moisten


is tamei.


וכלן טהורות - This is derived from (וכל כלי חרס אשר יפול מהם אל תוכו (ויקרא יא:לג , from which we derive that it applies to that which is תוכו, in its interior, but not תןך תוכו, an interior inside its interior.

השרץ בעליונה כלן טמאות - As was set forth in ג:א and ח:ב, if a pot used for both food and liquids, such as these, develops a hole that allows liquid to pass through but not solids, we must rule stringently.  Therefore, with respect to the status of the inner or top pot to itself, we treat it as still being a כלי, and therefore טמא; yet for the outer or lower pots, we treat the inner pot as if it is not a כלי, and so the שרץ is not considered to be תוך תוכו.  If the שרץ is in the outermost, or bottom, pot, then the inner pots will be טהור, as either they are not deemed כלים, and so are not  מקבל טומאה, or they are כלים, but then they cannot contract טומאה from another earthenware vessel, as stated in ח:ב.