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מסכת כלים פרק י משנה א

אלו כלים מצילין

These utensils protect

בצמיד פתיל

with a sealed cover:

כלי גללים

Utensils of dung;

כלי אבנים

utensils of stone;

כלי אדמה

utensils of clay;

כלי חרס

utensils of earthenware;

וכלי נתר

and utensils of nesser (a variety of earthenware; see 2:1);

עצמות הדג ועורו

[utensils made from] bones of fish and their skins;

עצמות חיה שבים ועורה

[utensils made from] bones of sea animals and their skins;

וכלי עץ הטהורים

and wooden utensils that are tahor (that are not susceptible to tumah);

מצילים בין מפיהם

they protect whether from their mouths (i.e. the seal is over their normal opening),

בין מצדיהן

whether from their sides (when the seal covers an abnormal hole in their wall),

בין יושבין על שוליהן

whether they are sitting on their bottoms,

בין מטין על צדיהן

whether they are tilted on their sides;

היו כפויים על פיהן

if they were turned over onto their mouths

מצילים כל שתחתיהן

they protect all that is beneath them

עד התהום

until the depths [of the earth],

רבי אליעזר מטמא

Rabbi Eliezer rules it is tamei (when the item is below, but not within the vessel).

על הכל מצילין

They protect everything

חוץ מכלי חרס

except earthenware utensils

שאינו מציל

that (by rabbinic decree) do not protect,

אלא על האכלים

[anything] except food,

ועל המשקין

and drink,

ועל כלי חרס

and earthenware utensils.


פרק י משנה ב

במה מקיפים

With what may we seal?


With plaster;


and with gypsum (a a soft sulfate mineral used to make a stronger variety of plaster);


with pitch;


and with wax;


with mud;


and with dung;


with mortar;


and with earthenware fragments (that were crushed and mixed with water to form a paste);

ובכל דבר המתמרח

and with any matter that can be smeared.

אין מקיפין

We do not seal,

לא בבעץ

neither with tin

ולא בעופרת

nor with lead

מפני שהוא פתיל

as it covers

ואינו צמיד

and does not seal (these soft metals can be pressed into place, but will not adhere to form a true seal unless they are molten).

אין מקיפין

We do not seal

לא בדבלה שמנה

neither with fat pressed figs (which can have the consistency of paste)

ולא בבצק

and not with dough

שנלוש במי פרות

that has been kneaded with fruit juice (and is therefore not susceptible to tumah)

שלא יביאנו לידי פסול

so that it does not come to be made ineffective (if these two substances were to come into contact a qualifying liquid - water, dew, wine, oil, blood, milk or honey from bees - they would become susceptible to tumah and would no longer qualify as a seal),

ואם הקיף הציל

and if one did surround (i.e. if one did use one of these two), it protects.