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|פרק ד משנה ג|
|כל האסורים לבוא בקהל||
All that are prohibited from entering [by marriage] the nation [of Israel]
|מתרין לבוא זה בזה||
are permitted to [marry] each other;
|רבי יהודה אוסר||
Rabbi Yehuda prohibits it.
|רבי אליעזר אומר||
Rabbi Eliezer says
|ודאן בודאן מותר||
those that are definitely [unfit] are permitted with those that are definitely [unfit],
but those that are definitely [unfit] with those that are uncertainly [unfit]
or those that are uncertainly [unfit] with those that are definitely [unfit]
and those that are uncertainly [unfit] with those that are uncertainly [unfit]
|ואלו הן הספקות||
And these are the uncertainly [unfit]:
|שתוקי ואסופי וכותי||
those of unknown fatherhood, foundlings and Cutheans
|פרק ד משנה ד|
|click here for the family tree described in this mishna|
|הנושא אישה כהנת||
[A Kohen] who marries a Kohenes
|צריך לבדוק אחריה||
is required to investigate her [lineage]
for four mothers
that are eight:
|אמה ואם אמה||
her mother; her mother's mother;
|ואם אבי אימה ואמה||
her mother's father's mother; her mother;
|אם אביה ואמה||
her father's mother; her mother
|אם אבי אביה ואמה||
her father's father's mother; and her mother;
if she is a Leviah or Yisroelis
|מוסיפין עליהן עוד אחת||
we add to them another [generation of mothers to check].
כל האסורים לבוא בקהל מתרין לבוא זה בזה - This includes even converts from אמון ומואב who are permitted to marry a ממזר שתוקי ואסופי.
רבי יהודה אוסר - The גמרא explains that ר"י actually holds that an ordinary גר cannot marry a ממזר שתוקי ואסופי, as according to him that are part of the קהל. But even according to ר"י a גר from אמון ומואב may marry a ממזר שתוקי ואסופי as converts from those nations are not part of the קהל.
ודאן - This refers to ממזרי ונתיני
וכותי - The Cutheans were a nation that converted to Judaism, but possibly while under duress, and were not careful in their observance of the laws of marriage and divorce. Thus, they were considered possible ממזרים
צריך לבדוק - We investigate to be sure that there is no פסול. Only mothers need to be investigated, as we would presumably know about any blemishes in the fathers' lineage, due to the fat that men will insult each other by disparaging their lineage, which women would not do.
שהן שמונה - In other words, of the first four mothers we check, we also check their mothers, for a total of eight.
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