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מסכת הוריות

פרק ב משנה א

הורה כהן משיחא לעצמו 

If the anointed kohen (i.e. the Kohen Gadol)א ruled for himself


in error

 ועשה שוגגב

and acted in errorב

מביא פרג 

he brings a bull,ג

שוגג ועשה מזיד  

[but if he ruled in] error and acted intentionally

מזיד ועשה שוגג 

[or ruled] intentionally and acted in error,


he is exempt.

שהוראת כהן משיח לעצמו 

as the ruling of the anointed kohen for himself

כהוראת בית דין לצבור

is like the ruling of the Beis Din for the community.

משנה ב

הורה בפני עצמו

If he ruled on his own

ועשה בפני עצמו

and acted on his own,

מתכפר לו בפני עצמו 

he is atoned for on his own [with his own personal korban];

הורה עם הציבור 

if he ruled with the community [as part of the Beis Din]

ועשה עם הציבור

and acted with the community,

מתכפר לו עם הצבור 

he is atoned for with the community,

שאין בית דין חיבים  

as Beis Din is not liable

עד שיורו 

until they rule

לבטל מקצת ולקים מקצת

to abolish part and keep part,

וכן המשיחד 

and so too the anointed,ד

ולא בעבודה זרה 

and neither by idolatry

עד שיורו לבטל מקצת ולקים מקצת

unless they rule to abolish part and keep part.



הערת שוליים

א.    Aside from being the anointed כהן גדול, he must also be qualified to issue a פסק דין.   

ב.    The תפארת ישראל explains the three cases of our משנה as follows:  By a שוגג ועשה שוגג, when acting he remembered his ruling, but forgot what he had based it on, and yet acted based on that earlier ruling.  Even though one might say he should have looked over the matter anew, would therefore have discovered his error, and is therefore akin to a מזיד, the משנה teaches us that he is still considered a שוגג in that case.  In the case of  שוגג ועשה מזיד, he merely acted without relying on any ruling, which includes cases where he had forgotten his earlier ruling, and acted without reliance on any הוראה, and is not necessarily a willful transgression.  Finally, the case of מזיד ועשה שוגג, can for example, refer to a case where he ruled that חלב was permissible, knowing that it is not, and then consumed חלב thinking that it was actually שומן.

ג.   The פר כהן משיח is learned from ויקרא ד:ג.

ד.    Some learn this part of the משנה as providing the basis for the earlier part, saying that we see that the כהן המשיח is treated like בית דין; others learn this is a statement of a separate הלכה.