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פרק ד משנה ד
עבד שנשבה A slave who was captured
ופדאוהו and redeemed [by someone other than his original master],
 אם לשום עבד if [he was redeemed] for the purposes of being a slave
ישתעבד he is enslaved [to the one who redeemed him],
אם לשום בן חורין and if [he was redeemed] for the purposed of being a free man,
לא ישתעבד is not enslaved (not even to his original master).
רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says,
בין כך ובין כך ישתעבד either way he is enslaved [to his original master] (as we fear slaves would allow themselves to be captured in order to escape their masters).
עבד שעשאו רבו A slave whose master made him
אפותיקי לאחרים the sole security for a debt [that the master owed] to others
ושיחררו and then freed him (thus freeing the master from the debt, as the creditors cannot collect from any other assets),
שורת הדין going strictly by the letter of the of law
אין העבד חיב כלום the slave is not liable for anything (and not subject to any claims by his former master's creditors)
אלא מפני תקון העולם

but for the good of the public (to prevent the slave from being accused by the creditors of still being a slave)

כופין את רבו we force his master (i.e. the creditor whose claim against his former master were secured by the slave)
ועושה אותו בן חורין and he makes him a free man (by giving him a bill of emancipation)
וכותב שטר על דמיו and [the slave] writes him a note for his worth (up to the value of the debt).
רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says
אינו כותב אלא משחרר [the slave] does not write anything, he is only freed.
פרק ד משנה ה
מי שחציו עבד  One who is half slave
וחציו בן חורין and half a free man
עובד את רבו יום אחד works for his master one day
ואת עצמו יום אחד and for himself one day;
דברי בית הלל this is the opinion of Beis Hillel
אמרו להם בית שמאי Beis Shammai said to them:
תקנתם את רבו you have created a solution for his master
ואת עצמו לא תיקנתם but you have not created a solution for him,
 לישא שפחה אי אפשר he cannot marry a slave
 שכבר חציו בן חורין as he is yet half a free man,
בת חורין אי אפשר he cannot [marry] a free woman
שכבר חציו עבד as he is yet a half slave.
יבטל Should he remain idle?
והלא לא נברא העולם Was not the world created
אלא לפריה ורביה but for the commandment to be fruitful and multiply,
שנאמר as it is written
לא תהו בראה לשבת יצרה "He did not create it for waste, He created it to be inhabited ."

(ישעיהו מה:יח)

  אלא מפני תקון העולם Only for the publiuc good
כופין את רבו we force his master
 ועושה אותו בן חורין to make him a free man
וכותב שטר על חצי דמיו  and he writes a note to [his master] for half his worth.
וחזרו בית הלל And Beis Hillel retracted
להורות כדברי בית שמאי to rule according to the opinion of Beis Shammai.


משנה ד

אינו כותב אלא משחרר - But, according to רשב"ג, the original master is obligated to pay the creditors for their loss.



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