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מסכת חולין פרק ג משנה א
אלו טריפות בבהמה  The following render an animal a treifah:
נקובת הושט the esophagus was punctured;
ופסוקת הגרגרת the trachea was severed;
נקב קרום של מח the meninges (membranes surrounding the brain) was punctured;
נקב הלב לבית חללו the heart was punctured into its cavity;
נשברה השדרה the spine was broken
ונפסק החוט שלה and its cord severed;
נטל הכבד the liver was removed
ולא נשתיר הימנה כלום and nothing was left of it;
הריאה שניקבה the lung was punctured
או שחסרה or part of it is missing,
רבי שמעון אומר Rabbi Shimon says
עד שתנקב לבית הסמפונות unless it was punctured into the bronchi (he is referring here to the airways that branch off from the trachea into the lungs);
נקבה הקבה

the maw (also known as the abomasum or rennet bag, this is the fourth stomach compartment of a ruminant) was punctured;

נקבה המרה the gall bladder was punctured;
נקבו הדקין the intestines were punctured;
הכרס הפנימית שנקבה

the inner rumen (also known as the paunch, this is the larger part of the reticulorumen, the first chamber of a ruminant's stomach) was punctured

או שנקרע רוב החיצונה or most of the outer one (i.e. the abdominal wall covering the rumen) was torn,
רבי יהודה אומר Rabbi Yehuda says
הגדולה טפח in a large one [animal] a handbreadth
והקטנה ברבה and in a small one the majority;
המסס the omasum (the third chamber of a ruminant's stomach)
ובית הכוסות or the reticulum (the smaller part of the reticulorumen, this is the second chamber of the stomach)
שנקבו לחוץ

that were punctured to the outside (meaning the puncture is between one of these organs and the outside of the stomach, as opposed to if the puncture going from the omasum to the reticulum);

נפלה מן הגג it fell from a roof (if it was slaughtered immediately thereafter, without waiting to see if it survived for 24 hours, even if it has no apparent injury);
נשתברו רוב צלעותיה most of its ribs were broken (this refers only to the 22 large ribs that contain marrow);
ודרוסת הזאב or if it was pawed by a wolf (which injected venom into the animal via it's foreleg).
רבי יהודה אומר Rabbi Yehuda says,
דרוסת הזאב בדקה the pawing of a wolf by a small animals
ודרוסת הארי בגסה and the clawing of a lion by a large animals,
דרוסת הנץ בעוף הדק the clawing by a netz (a smaller bird of prey, possibly a sparrow hawk) by small fowl
ודרוסת הגס בעוף הגס and the clawing by a gass (a larger raptor).
זה הכלל This is the rule:
כל שאין כמוה חיה

Any, that are like it [in their injury and] that cannot live

טריפה is a treifah.

משנה ב

ואלו כשרות בבהמה And the following are kosher in an animal:
נקבה הגרגרת the trachea was punctured
או שנסדקה or sliced.
עד כמה תחסר How much can be missing?
רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says
עד כאסר האיטלקי up to [the size of] an Italian issar.
נפחתה הגלגלת The skull was broken
ולא ניקב קרום של מח and the meninges were not punctured;
ניקב הלב the heart was punctured,
ולא לבית חללו and not into its cavity;
נשברה השדרה the spine was broken
ולא נפסק החוט שלה and its cord not severed;
ניטלה הכבד the liver was removed
ונשתיר הימנה כזית and there remains of it like the size of an olive;
המסס ובית הכוסות the omasum and reticulum
שניקבו זו לתוך זו were punctured one into the other;
נטל הטחול the spleen was removed;
נטלו הכליות the kidneys were removed;
נטל לחי התחתון the lower jaw was removed;
נטלה האם שלה the uterus was removed;
וחרותה בידי שמים or the lungs were shrunk by an act of God;
הגלודה One that has been flayed
 רבי מאיר מכשיר Rabbi Meir ruled to be kosher,
וחכמים פוסלין and the Sages ruled it unfit.