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מסכת חולין פרק א משנה ו
כשר בפרה  What is [a] valid [method for slaughtering] the cow (a para aduma, which was slaughtered in the usual manner)
פסול בעגלה  is invalid for the heifer (an eglah arufa which was decapitated, rather than having it's throat slit in the usual manner);
כשר בעגלה  what is valid for the heifer
פסול בפרה  is invalid for the cow.
כשר בכהנים  What is acceptable by kohanim (i.e. that they remain fit for duty no matter how old they get)
פסול בלוים 

is not acceptable by leviim (who did face mandatory retirement at age 50, or after mishkan was permanently established at Shiloh, once their voice became weak);

כשר בלוים 

what is acceptable by leviim (a physical blemish)

פסול בכהנים

is not acceptable by kohanim.

טהור בכלי חרס

What is tahor by earthenware utensils (e.g. contact by a sheretz to the exterior of such a vessel does not render it tamei)

טמא בכל הכלים

is tamei by all [other] utensils;

טהור בכל הכלים

what is tahor by [all] other utensils (e.g. a sheretz that is suspended into the airspace of the vessel without contacting its walls does not render it tamei)

טמא בכלי חרס

is tamei by earthenware utensils.

טהור בכלי עץ

What is tahor by wooden utensils (e.g. contact by a sheretz to the exterior of a flat wooden utensil does not render it tamei)

טמא בכלי מתכות 

is tamei by metal utensils;

טהור בכלי מתכות  

what is tahor by metal utensils (e.g. an item of tumah that touches a usable but unfinished metal utensil does not render it tamei)

טמא בכלי עץ 

is tamei by wooden utensils.

החיב בשקדים המרים

What is obligated [to be tithed] in bitter almonds (when they are small and not yet bitter, they are regularly eaten and therefore subject to terumah and maaser)

פטור במתוקים

is exempt by sweet ones (which are not normally eaten when small, but only upon ripening);

החיב במתוקים

what is obligated by sweet ones (fully ripened sweet almonds are normally eaten, and so are subject to terumah and maaser)

פטור במרים

is exempt by bitter ones (which are not normally eaten when fully ripened).


משנה ז


Lora (a bitter wine made from soaking grape skin husks, seeds and any other product left over from the pressing process in water, which was then fermented; also known as vinum operarium),

עד שלא החמיץ 

as long as it has not fermented (it is considered water, thus:)

אינו נקח בכסף מעשר 

it may not be purchased with maaser money

ופוסל את המקוה 

and will invalidate a mikveh.


Once it has fermented

נקח בכסף מעשר

it may be purchased with maaser money

ואינו פוסל את המקוה

and does not invalidate a mikveh.

האחין והשתפין

Brothers who are partners

כשחיבין בקלבון

when they are obligated in kolbon (a surcharge on the machtsis hashekel that was levied when a one-shekel payment was made on behalf of two people; this would be the case if the brothers paid one shekel for the two of them from their shared funds in a regular partnership)

פטורין ממעשר בהמה

they are exempt from maaser behema (from which jointly owned livestock is exempt);

כשחיבין במעשר בהמה

when they are obligated in maaser behema (when the partnership is actually their shares in an undivided decedent's estate, the estate's livestock is viewed as owned by a single person, the decedent, and therefore is subject to maaser behema),

פטורין מן הקלבון

they are exempt from kolbon (if a single shekel is paid for two sons from their father's undivided estate, it is as if a father had paid each of his sons' machtsis hashekel, which is exempt from kolbon).

כל מקום שיש מכר

Wherever there is a [father's right of] sale (i.e. the right to sell his minor daughter as a maidservant; which ends when she becomes a naarah),

אין קנס

there is no penalty [for the seduction or violation of his daughter, which is only by a naarah];

וכל מקום שיש קנס

and wherever there is a penalty,

אין מכר

there is no [right of] sale.

כל מקום שיש מאון

Wherever there is a [minor's right of] refusal [of a marriage she was entered into by her mother or brother]

אין חליצה

there is no chalitzah (as the girl is still a minor, and cannot perform chalitzah),

וכל מקום שיש חליצה

and wherever there is chalitzah

אין מאון

there cannot be refusal (as the girl can no longer be a minor).

כל מקום שיש תקיעה

Wherever the shofar is sounded (to signal the onset of Shabbos, which was done even if Friday was yom tov),

אין הבדלה

there is no havdalah [recited for the departure of yom tov];

וכל מקום שיש הבדלה

and wherever there is havdalah (such as when the end of Shabbos coincided with the onset of yom tov),

אין תקיעה

the shofar is not sounded.

יום טוב

Yom tov

שחל להיות ערב שבת

that fell on Friday

תוקעין ולא מבדילין

they would sound the shofar and would not make havdalah,

במוצאי שבת

at the departure of Shabbos [that coincided with the onset of Yom Tov]

מבדילין ולא תוקעין

they would make havdalah and would not sound the shofar.

כיצד מבדילין

How would they make havdalah?

המבדיל בין קדש לקדש

"Who distinguishes between holy and holy."

רבי דוסא אומר

Rabbi Dosa says:

בין קדש חמור לקדש הקל

"Between stricter holiness and lighter holiness."