Audio by Shimi Berger

פרק ב משנה ו
אתרוג שוה לאילן

The Esrog is equivalent to a tree

בשלשה דרכים

in three ways

ולירק בדרך אחד

and to a vegetable in one way

שוה לאילן

it is equivalent to a tree

בערלה וברבעי ובשביעית

with respect to orlah, revai and sheviis


and to a vegetable

שבשעת לקיטתו עישורו

in that at the time of its harvesting it is tithed;

דברי רבן גמליאל

these are the words of Raban Gamliel.

רבי אליעזר אומר

Rebbi Eliezer says

שווה לאילן בכל דבר

it is equivalent to a tree in all respects.


פרק ב משנה ז

דם מהלכי שתים

Blood of those who walk on two legs (i.e. humans)

שוה לדם בהמה

is equivalent to blood of an animal

להכשיר את הזרעים

to qualify [to be mekabel tumah] seeds [or any other food]

ודם השרץ

and [it is equivalent to] the blood of vermin

אין חייבין עליו

[in that] one is not liable [for the לאו of consuming blood] for it




משנה ו

בערלה וברבעי - Fruit grown during a tree's first three years are forbidden as orlah; revai are the fruits of the fourth year that must be consumed in Jerusalem.  שבשעת לקיטתו עישורו - While the various obligations of the fruit of trees are triggered by the time they ripen, vegetables go by when they are harvested. 

משנה ז

מהלכי שתים - Why the תנא used his unique formulation, as opposed to the more usual "אדם",  is discussed amongst various מפרשים.  The תיו"ט cites several gemaras where אדם is said to exclude עובדי כוכבים, however this is rejected by the ראשון לציון and בועז because ר"ת (in [.יבמות [סא), to resolve the obvious difficulty that this limitation raises in many פסוקים, says that while "אדם" does connote only בני ישראל, the word "האדם" includes עכו"ם.  The תפארת ישראל, citing R' Yaakov Emden, says that our mishna used this term to include the אדני השדה, or orangutan, which can walk on two feet [there are more fanciful translations of אדני השדה that would also work in this context; see the notes to מסבת כלאים ח:ה].  Others, such as תוספות אנשי שם, say that the term מהלכי שתים was used to exclude blood which comes out of a human's body after death (when they are no longer מהלך), as opposed to the blood of animals, which must come after its death to qualify foods for tumah.  Yet another reason for this mishan's unique לשון is given by תוספית חדשים, who says that this is a euphemism meant to include דם הנדה, which the term אדם would not necessarily have implied.   להכשיר את הזרעים - Food must come into contact with water or certain other liquids in order to be מקבל טומאה, and the blood of animals are included in those liquids.  ודם השרץ אין חייבין עליו - However, if one were to consume the blood of vermin one would still be liable for the consumption of a שרץ.


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